Hindu perspective on euthanasia

Hinduism does permit Prayopavesa or renouncing of food and water which is actually euthanasia.
Prayopavesa literally resolving to die through fasting is a practice in Hinduism that denotes the suicide by fasting of a person, who has no desire or ambition left, and no responsibilities remaining in life.  It is also allowed in cases of terminal disease or great disability. A similar practice exists in Jainism.

Committing Prayopavesa is bound by very strict regulations. Only a person who has no desire or ambition left, and no responsibilities remaining in life is entitled to perform it. The decision to do so must be publicly declared well in advance.  Ancient times law makers stipulated the conditions that allow Prayopavesa. They are one’s inability to perform normal bodily purification, death appears imminent or the condition is so bad that life’s pleasures are nil and the action is done under community regulation.   eg King Parikshit in ancient time had observed prayopavesa and in current time, in 1982 Acharya Vinoba Bhave ( spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi) died by prayopavesa. In Nov 2001 Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami subjected himself to prayopavesa. Subramuniyaswami was diagnosed to be suffering from terminal intestinal cancer. He later died on the 32nd day of his fast.

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